Since the Huangpu River incident in 2013, the problem of livestock and poultry pollution has long been neglected. There is a lack of guidance and planning for the development of livestock and poultry industry in China. The layout of livestock and poultry farming is unreasonable, breeding is disjointed, and the total amount of farming in some areas exceeds the capacity of the environment and a large number of livestock and poultry dung has not been effectively treated. The State Council issued the regulations on the prevention and control of livestock and poultry pollution (hereinafter referred to as "Regulations") by the State Council, which opened the environmental protection tide of agricultural livestock and poultry, and this year the State Council has issued a rectification requirement for the completion of the forbidden zone in 2017. What kind of environmental trends will animal husbandry be?
1, small and medium-sized farms are still the main body, and the situation of environmental pollution is very serious.
According to the "national pig production and development plan 2016-2020", the proportion of 500 pigs in China's annual column is 38% in 2010, up to 42% in 2014, and is expected to reach 52% in 2020. That is to say, in 2020, small and medium-sized retail investors below 500 pigs were still one of the main farmers. However, because of the weak environmental awareness of the small and medium sized farmers and the lack of funds and pollution treatment equipment, most of the small and medium farmers and the illegal farms will discharge a large number of livestock and poultry excrement directly, causing serious pollution.
In 2010, the national survey of the first pollution source survey showed that the chemical oxygen demand of livestock and poultry production in China reached 12 million 682 thousand and 600 tons, the total nitrogen and total phosphorus emissions were 1 million 24 thousand and 800 tons and 160 thousand and 400 tons, accounting for 96%, 38% and 56% of the total agricultural emissions.
At the same time, the scale of China's aquaculture is low, it is wide, the total amount is huge, and the waste management of the aquaculture industry is difficult. The environmental pollution control work is seriously lagging behind, and the environmental pollution situation is very serious.
2, regulations and regulations are increasing, and the intensity of regulation is more severe.
Before the promulgation of the regulations on prevention and control of livestock and poultry scale pollution, there are no specific laws and regulations on agricultural environmental protection at the national level. Jin Jianming, academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering, pointed out that the media interpreted the Ordinance. It can be seen that before the Huangpu River incident, the state has neglected environmental governance for the rapid development of the economy. But with the rapid development of economy and the enhancement of people's awareness of environmental protection, environmental problems have increasingly become important livelihood issues. Since the eighteen Party's Congress, the "focus on environmental protection development" has never been the old way of pollution control. This shows that the state will pay more attention to environmental protection and develop a green economy. In April 20, 2016, the Ministry of Agriculture published the national plan for the development of pig production (2016-2020 years), planning for the next five years of pig industry, dividing the distribution of pig breeding area, developing standardized scale culture, promoting industrial development, and improving waste Naka Kazuri to reduce pollution. In December of the same year, the State Council issued a circular calling for the closure or relocation of pig farms in all prohibited areas throughout the country by the end of 2017.
In addition, a series of regulations, such as "water ten", "adjustment of the layout of pig breeding in the southern water network", "13th Five-Year plan" and a series of rules and regulations are gradually introduced and added, and the environmental pollution control of the aquaculture is also required to be more strictly clear, which is enough to show the central government's decision on environmental pollution control. Under the high importance of environmental protection and the government, the environmental protection departments have further strengthened supervision and enforcement. Governments at all levels have introduced various programs to prevent and control pollution. In 2017, it is the deadline to increase pollution control and demolition.
3, the environment will be more scientific governance, transformation and upgrading into a trend.
Environmental protection measures and the delimitation of prohibited areas have raised the threshold of animal husbandry industry to a certain extent. At the same time, to a certain extent, raising the breeding cost of the farmers, after the retail exit, leaving the farm with economic strength, it is easier to improve the standardization and scale of the culture, and promote the industrial upgrading. Environmental protection and prohibition can improve the environment, reduce pollution and develop sustainable agriculture to a certain extent.
However, with the implementation of the pig ban policy in some areas, the pig farms in the prohibited areas were closed or removed, and some pigs were forced to drop out, resulting in a continuous decline in the pig's deposit. Not only that, because of the great responsibility for environmental protection and the difficulty of pollution control, some places simply adopt a simple and rough practice of comprehensive prohibition and prohibition, and even some places are blindly expanding the forbidden zone in order to do well in political achievements.
In fact, the emergence of the decline of pig stock, the overall prohibition of raising and so on is inevitable. The government wants to continue to control the pollution of the agricultural environment. It is necessary to raise the level of China's culture and establish a standardized breeding farm. This has a certain requirement on the technical and capital strength of the farm, and most of the retail households are still unable to reach this Standard. Nowadays, the delimitation of the forbidden zone and the scale breeding farm is the first step in the agricultural environment treatment. After a certain scale of the scale breeding farm, the country will put forward higher environmental protection requirements for the breeding industry to realize the real sustainable development. The demolition of the southern water network and the encouragement of the farmers to the environmental carrying capacity and feed raw materials can reduce the pollution of water and environment to a certain extent, but does this not cause pollution to the migrated land? Today's policy is not only environmental governance, but also rational layout planning for pig farming for future management and development. Therefore, in the course of the prohibition of breeding, it will inevitably reflect the contradiction of the development of China's breeding industry, that is, the main body of Chinese culture is still the medium and small retail households of 500 pigs in the year column, and the most serious pollution of the agricultural environment is the small and medium scattered households. This is a problem that must be faced in the process of the transformation and upgrading.
In this process of upgrading, the government's policy of "ten water" and "pig development plan" can be said to a certain extent for small and medium farmers. In order to survive, small and medium-sized farmers must carry out industrial upgrading or cooperate with large enterprises. Forced to improve the current status of aquaculture and aquaculture level. Therefore, we have recently been able to understand the biological bacteria bed model, culture separation model, company + co-operative + farmers, farmers and enterprises to build domestic pigs in cooperation with the enterprises.
4, the environmental protection of animal husbandry will move towards a more scientific and reasonable trend.
The disposal of livestock and poultry manure resources should be taken into account, not only to take a clear-cut stand to promote the disposal of livestock and poultry manure resources, but also to identify the unshifting development of production and protection, to prevent the blind expansion of the prohibition zone and to simply shut down the farm. This means that reducing the pollution of livestock manure is not simply a ban on farms and shutting down farms, and environmental governance is heading for a more scientific and rational direction. The future aquaculture environmental protection will focus more on livestock and poultry manure pollution reasonable harmless, resourceful, to achieve green development.
Qingdao jimo longquan town government resident